Allah the Almighty has created humankind out of nothing and made them responsible beings by equipping them with features such as reason and will. In order for them to fulfill this responsibility, He sent prophets and taught people the difference between right and wrong through the revelation He sent to the prophets. The Qur'an revealed to Prophet Muhammad (saw), stands as the final link in the chain of revelation.

Throughout history, there have always been believers among the communities of the prophets, as well as those who opposed them and denied the revelation they received from Allah. From Prophet Noah to Prophet Abraham and from Prophet Hud to Prophet Lut this took place, and this was also true for the people of Prophet Muhammad (saw). They took a similar attitude of denying his prophethood and refused to accept the fact that the Qur’an revealed to him was the word of Allah. One of the main arguments put forward by the polytheists who opposed the Prophet (saw) and the new religion was that the Qur’an was not the word of Allah, but a human utterance invented by the Prophet (saw).

In response to these assertions of the polytheists, Allah (swt) openly challenged the polytheists and refuted their claims. In fact, Allah (swt) issued a challenge to the most powerful poets and intellectuals of the time, asking them to produce a book similar to the Qur’an, even with collective assistance (Osman Keskioglu, Nuzulunden Gunumuze Kur’an-ı Kerim Bilgileri, Publications of TDF, p. 185). Allah states, “Say, O Prophet, ‘If all humans and jinn were to come together to produce the equivalent of this Quran, they could not produce its equal, no matter how they supported each other.’” (Isra, 17:88). This was a declaration that the disbelievers were incapable of replicating the miraculous nature of the Qur'an.

Once it became evident that the polytheists were unable to produce a book similar to the Qur’an, they were further challenged to bring at least ten surahs similar to the Qur’an: “Or do they say, “He has fabricated this Quran! Say, O Prophet, ‘Produce ten fabricated surahs like it and seek help from whoever you can—other than Allah—if what you say is true! But if your helpers fail you, then know that it has been revealed with the knowledge of Allah, and that there is no god worthy of worship except Him! Will you not then submit to Allah?’” (Hud, 11:13-14)

After issuing the challenge to bring ten surahs similar to the Qur’an, Allah further confronted His interlocutors to produce only one surah, but insisting that they would be unable to do so. In doing so, Allah put forth the manifest evidence that the Qur’an is the word of Allah. He states: “And if you are in doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a surah like it and call your helpers other than Allah, if what you say is true. But if you are unable to do so—and you will never be able to do so—then fear the Fire fueled with people and stones, which is prepared for the disbelievers.” (Baqarah, 2:23-24)