Born on October 24, 1924, in Bitlis, Fuat Sezgin pursued his primary education in Dogubayazit. He continued his secondary and high school education in Erzurum. In 1942, he relocated to Istanbul to pursue his university education with the aspiration of becoming an engineer.

Shortly after arriving in Istanbul, Fuat Sezgin was introduced to a conference by a relative of his who was studying at Istanbul University's Faculty of Literature. This conference featured renowned German orientalist Hellmut Ritter, who was considered an authority in the field of “Islamic Sciences and Orientalism”. He attended the lecture with a sense of awe and described himself as “mesmerized” by Ritter's discourse. During the lecture, Ritter spoke about esteemed Islamic scholars, extolling luminaries like al-Khwarizmi, Ibn al-Haytham, Abu al-Wafa’ al-Buzjani, Ibn Yunus, al-Jazari, and al-Biruni, elucidating their profound contributions to global science.

Hearing these truths from a Western scientist profoundly affected Fuat Sezgin. Consequently, he pursued a different goal in Istanbul, a city he had originally come to for studying engineering. Fueled by his great admiration for Hellmut Ritter and a newfound curiosity about his own civilization, he resolved to enroll in the Department of Arabic and Persian Philology at Istanbul University. He was now a student of Ritter, and he embraced his lessons with great passion. Following his teacher’s counsel to learn a new language each year, he directed his efforts towards mastering Arabic and achieved fluency in due course. Over time, he managed to learn languages such as Latin, Persian, Hebrew, and Assyrian well enough to read them from their own sources.

He graduated from the university in 1947 with his graduation thesis titled “Evolution of Ilm al-Badi”. Sezgin, who worked as a civil servant in various state institutions in Istanbul for two years, published his first Arabic translation work in 1948. In 1949, he began working at the Central Library of Istanbul University, where he completed his doctorate studies and received his Ph.D. in 1950.