Commencing in late June of the year 622 and persisting throughout the arduous summer months, the Hijrah unfolded under conditions of significant duress. Despite these hardships, the Muslims undertook a remarkable journey, traversing approximately five hundred kilometers within a ten-day timeframe (the distance between Mecca and Medina is 454 kilometers, a journey achievable by automobile in 4 hours and 20 minutes today). Undertaking such a challenging journey was no simple feat. Yathrib was in a strategic location, offering the potential for political and economic development that could be detrimental to the Quraysh. Caravans traveling north to Syria, Palestine, and Iraq had to pass through this city. Therefore, the Meccan polytheists could not accept the possibility of our beloved Prophet (saw) and the Muslims gaining strength there. They closely monitored those who intended to emigrate and tried to prevent them by causing various difficulties, such as separating husbands and wives using the ties of social cohesion, taking away their children, refusing to pay their debts, and confiscating their property. Several Muslims, including Hisham ibn al-As and Ayyash ibn Abi Rabi‘a (it was only in the 7th year of the Hijrah that they were able to escape from the polytheists and go to Medina), faced imprisonment. Only ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab demonstrated the fortitude to emigrate publicly in the face of such a hostile environment.

Concurrently, the polytheists harbored concerns regarding the potential emigration of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) to Yathrib. Such realization of their fears would elevate the Prophet’s power to a point that they would not be able to curtail. This time, our beloved Prophet was not content with sending his followers to a safe place, as he had done during the migration to Abyssinia, but he intended to personally lead the Muslims in Yathrib. However, the divine permission from Allah (swt) had not been granted yet.