On November 8, 1877, a boy was born in the city of Sialkot, near the Kashmir border of the Punjab state. His name was Mohammed Iqbal. Iqbal would become a person whom Muslims living in the land of his birth would see as a pioneer.

In order to understand what happened in the 19th and 20th centuries and the life and struggle of Muhammad Iqbal, it is necessary to go back even further in history. To better understand not only Iqbal but also concepts relating to India and Indian Muslims.

The arrival of Muslim conquerors to this land, originally called “Bharat,” now known as India , coincides with an early period. However, the person who laid the foundations for the existence of a Muslim community and Indo-Islamic culture in India, which have survived to the present day, is the Ghaznavid ruler Sultan Mahmud. With his 17 campaigns, this zealous Turkish ruler brought the adhan, which has continued to be recited in India for nearly a thousand years since.

But those who carried Indo-Islamic culture to the fore are the grandchildren of another Turkish ruler, Timur. The Turkish ruler Babur, who knew how to hold a sword and a pen, laid the foundations of a fair administration that ruled over a myriad of languages, belief systems and ethnic backgrounds in this region. Under Muslim Turkish rulers, people of different religions, languages, and races lived in peace.

Political and Economic Problems in India

From the 17th century on, the British laid their hands on the Indian trade, and by opening a place in the port of Surat, they had a way to conquer India from there in the future. Strangely enough, in India, where the British settled for trading activities, the Mughals had transformed from a strong structure that provided justice to a state where the princes fought each other for the throne.