Ibn Khaldun stated that history typically discusses the past, yet our connection to it lies in comprehending the future. In this context, it can be argued that civilizations exist with the legacies they leave behind, shaping the future with those same legacies. Similar to a business card, they depict their eras, periods, and ideologies through their works. The Caliphate of Córdoba, in addition to the hundreds of works it left behind, imbued Spain with its own character through the Great Mosque of Qurtuba. Among the many words used to describe Andalusia, the most notable are education, science, culture, and art. According to narrations, the history of Andalusia begins with a commander who burned his own ships to eliminate the possibility of his army’s retreat, declaring, “There is an enemy like the sea behind us and the sea like the enemy in front of us, there is no turning back now”. Under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad, the conquering army established its dominance over the Iberian Peninsula, leading to centuries of civilization.

Andalusia not only served as an Islamic state but also played a significant role in shaping the course of history. Its conquest had a profound impact on science, art, culture, and civilization, influencing world history to the present day.

Andalusia’s exceptional history is characterized by the construction of mosques, madrasas, inns, baths, libraries, palaces, and scientific studies. The list encompasses a wide range of subjects, including mathematics, astronomy, paper, printing, silk, astrolabe, history, geography, art, architecture, philosophy, logic, language, literature, music, fiqh, kalam, hadith, tafsir, tasawwuf, medicine, chemistry (including surgery, and pharmacy), zoology, and botany (including the cultivation of rice, sugarcane, and cotton).